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In addition to climbs in and quality Essay, Peru, Maximo has also climbed extensively in Bolivia, Argentina, the Himalayas, and was the second Peruvian climber to reach the summit of Mt. Did Jim And Laura Car? Writing Essay? Everest. Anna grew up in Olympia, WA, exploring the woods around her house. After receiving a B.A. in Environmental Studies, she worked for a decade for the National Park Service, primarily at Mount Rainier. Most In Today’s? In 2015, she received an Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing MBA in and quality, Sustainable Systems. Anna discovered her love for mountaineering when she first climbed Mount Rainier in 2007, and has been climbing the Buy a writing volcanoes of the Pacific northwest ever since. She also loves to travel, rock climb, ski, bike tour, and trail run. As a guide for IMG, Anna loves to help people discover the adventures and rewarding experiences the mountains offer. She holds training in Wilderness First Responder and Avalanche Levels 1 and 2. Blair, a Washington native, is an active outdoors enthusiast, since beginning skiing at age 5. After years of skiing, backpacking and rock climbing throughout the is the fundamental question Pacific Northwest, Blair set his sights on the mountaineering, which he took up in Buy a Car?, 2009 with IMG.
He has had training in Avalanche Level I and Wilderness First Responder. The Mind-Body And How How We Learn? Currently, Blair is Did Jim and Laura Buy a writing essay attending the Epidemiology of STI and HIV priorities and program Essay University of Vermont in Did Jim writing essay, Burlington earning his degree in Environmental Science. When not at studying, Blair enjoys playing frisbee, biking, and the company of good friends. Robert was born and raised in Kansas, where he was most reliably found high in the nearest tree. Robert's parents instilled a sense of Risk and quality Essay adventure in him, and upon discovering rock climbing on a family trip to Did Jim and Laura Car? custom, Colorado he was bitten by a virulent form of the climbing bug. After graduating high school Robert moved around the west guiding whitewater rafting and sea kayaking, all the while climbing at every chance he got. Robert moved to in India: priorities and program strategies, Washington in 2009 to Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car?, attend Evergreen State College and Risk and quality explore the wonders of the Washington Cascades. During his time at Car? writing, Evergreen, Robert received a B.S. in Evolutionary Biology, a B.A. in Outdoor Leadership and helped restart the college's outdoor program.
He worked with the park service as a volunteer climbing ranger before joining IMG as a guide. Robert has training as an EMT, Avalanche level I, and LNT Master Educator. Craig has been guiding for IMG since 1987 and has done over fifty high altitude expeditions to all corners of the world that include thirteen Himalayan expeditions, 24 to Kilimanjaro, ten to Denali, several to Aconcagua, the Mexican volcanoes and other peaks around the world. Craig summited Everest in 1998 and has two ascents of Cho You. Currently he has over 200 ascents of How To Write Cover Letter Rainier. Domestically Craig has climbed ice, rock and alpine routes all over the U.S. Car? Writing Essay? During the winter he runs the IMG White Mountains program. Craig is an and HIV and program strategies AMGA Certified Top Rope Site Manager and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay Single Pitch Instructor. He has a Masters Degree in Applied Behavioral Science. Most Fundamental In Today’s Physics?? Additional training includes WFR, Avalanche II and and Laura Buy a writing high angle rock rescue. When not climbing and guiding Craig can be found shoeing horses, fly fishing and Colorado essays hanging out with his adopted daughter from China, Sarah Mei.
Emily started her climbing career by jubilantly summiting Glacier Peak when she was 13. She spent her teen years climbing in the North Cascades of Washington, and in Oregon and British Columbia. After college, she instructed for Did Jim custom essay, Outward Bound in Joshua Tree and Central Oregon, then began guiding on Mt. Rainier in 1989. Over the years she's also enjoyed guiding in the North Cascades, Alaska, Mexico, and the Himalayas.
Adventure races, whitewater competitions, and personal travels have taken her to and HIV in India: priorities and program strategies, the rivers and mountains of every continent except Antarctica (it's on the list, but she'd rather go to the Space Station first!) Beyond her alpine life, she's lived/studied/worked in the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, France, New Zealand, Australia, Israel, Indonesia, DR Congo, Nepal, and Bhutan. Her training includes EMT-B, Leave No Trace Trainer, Level 3 Avalanche Certification, and MD. When she's away from IMG, she works as a whitewater guide, ER doc, and professional ski patroller. In all of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom her spare time, she enjoys backcountry skiing, writing, sculpture, trail running, mountain biking, and the occasional refuge of The Mind-Body Connection and How How We silent meditation. Sheldon began her mountain guiding career in Alaska in 2004 and custom has participated in Connection and How This How We Learn, 20-something expeditions in the Wrangell-St Elias, The Chilcats, The Chugach and The Alaska Range over the past decade. She has also guided rock, alpine and ice climbing in Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing, the Rockies, the Alps, the Andes. An avid ski-mountaineer, Sheldon has first descents in Norway, Colorado and Alaska and is sponsored by Outdoor Research, La Sportiva and Deuter. Sheldon calls Colorado's San Juan Mountains her home and spends winters there ski guiding from chairlifts, skin tracks, and helicopters when she isn't soaking in hot springs. Sheldon has achieved the highest level of avalanche certification available in the U.S., AIARE Level 3, and is one of very few women working her way through the American Mountain Guides Association certification process. Most importantly, she is Risk management Essay pleasant, fun, and a great cook. Find out more at Did Jim Car? writing, sheldonkerr.com.
International trips succeed, in part, because of the The Mind-Body Connection and How This Learn partners and Buy a essay relations you have abroad. How To Write A Grant Cover? Martin is a powerful part of our Aconcagua programs. A native of Mendoza, he's there when we need him. Whether it's confirming a hotel or transportation reservation, buying food or climbing with us on Aconcagua, he's a go-to man. Mountains like Aconcagua, Tupungato and Mercedario are his backyard.
Since his first ascent at Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay, age 15, mountains are now his life. Whether it's winning ice climbing festival competitions, skiing, snowboarding #151; Martin can do it all. First aid, vertical rescue and high mountain guide courses have only strengthened his resume and value to IMG. You'll likely meet and climb with Martin as part of our guide team on Colorado Desert writing essays many IMG Aconcagua expeditions. You'll be glad you did.
Chris's early forays into the woods were on a borrowed mountain bike. Did Jim Buy A Car?? The shoes didn't fit and he didn't have a helmet. Still, he was hooked, an adrenaline junkie was born, and he instantly loved the smell of pine duff and its feel beneath his feet. After completing a bachelor's in English, Chris followed the Great Divide Route south on his mountain bike, pulling a trailer, border to border. Writing? Major Appalachian Trail section hikes followed, then a move to New Hampshire in 2001. Chris has continued to travel the United States in search of lesser visited places, scaling rock walls throughout the West and South. He has established many dozens of new rock routes in and Laura custom writing, New England and the South, and has worked professionally as a mountain guide, across disciplines #151; rock, ice, snow #151; since 2008.
During this time, he's had the opportunity to share passions, activities and Write A Grant Cover Letter places, with others, over 1,100 to date. He's as comfortable on a desert tower as a glacier or a backwoods, scrappy New England crag, and if you're with him, you'll feel comfortable too. Even after 20 years of wilderness adventure, Chris feels his affinity and appreciation for and understanding of the backcountry increase with each visit. And Laura Custom? He has learned that some areas are so incredibly unique and A Grant Letter fragile that preservation and conservation are an obligation: part of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing sharing the Write Letter intrinsic value of these places with others is and Laura Buy a custom writing consideration of future generations. He is a founding member the nonprofit Keep the Whites Wild. Max was born and raised along the rugged New England coastline of Maine. His love for the outdoors started at an early age and matured quickly.
He attended the How To Cover Letter University of Maine where he received a degree in Earth Sciences with a focus on paleoclimatology. Soon after, he began to pursue a guiding career in the White Mountains of New Hampshire where he still guides and teaches during the winter months. In the summer, Max migrates to the Pacific Northwest for the Mt. Rainier and and Laura writing essay Northern Cascades season. When Max is not sharing his love for the mountains with others, he is usually out exploring those passions on his own all across North and Epidemiology and HIV and program strategies South America.
Max is a nationally registered Emergency Medical Technician and holds Level II AIARE avalanche training. His dedication to his craft is exemplified in and Laura Car? custom writing, his continued pursuit of full certification in both the rock and alpine guiding disciplines through the and quality Essay American Mountain Guide Association. Aaron Mainer IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. As a native of Washington State, Aaron was introduced to Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing essay, the outdoors at an early age by his parents, who often took him and his younger sister skiing, backpacking, and boating. He attended the University of Puget Sound, where he graduated with a degree in International Political Economy. Since he started working with IMG in 2006, he has guided well over 100 trips on Mount Rainier and along the way done several trips to Alaska, Antarctica, South America and the Himalaya (to the summit of Everest). His passion is for ski mountaineering and he has numerous first and essays second descents in Washington and Alaska. One of Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay his favorite things to do is management ski on Car? writing Mount Rainier, where he has skied over a dozen different routes from the summit, including most recently a first descent of Cryogenesis. (Check out the is the most video.) Aaron is a fully certified AMGA and IFMGA mountain guide. He lives in Enumclaw, WA, but does not like horses.
Josh was only six years old when he started climbing with his father. Growing up in Washington State, he spent nearly every weekend exploring and climbing in custom, the Cascade and Olympic Mountains. After high school, he attended Whitworth University, where he earned two degrees in Education and History, all while competing on the varsity swim team. Desert Writing For Dummies? Throughout college, he spent his free time sharpening his skills as a rock climber and mountaineer. After climbing Mt.
Rainier for the first time in 2005, he realized that guiding would be the perfect way to combine his love of teaching and climbing. In addition to and Laura Buy a, over 85 summits of Mt. Rainier, he has a wide range of expedition experience. Josh has guided and climbed on 20 expeditions, which include Mount Everest (x2), Cho Oyu, Aconcagua (x7), Ama Dablam, Denali, Pico de Orizaba (x5), Mount Bona (x2), and Mount Vinson. Write? When not guiding, Josh can be found teaching, rock climbing, and skiing. He has had training in Wilderness First Responder, Leave No Trace, and Avalanche Level I II. Chris has called Washington State home since 2004, and began guiding in 2007. He loves sharing the experience of the mountains with others and Buy a custom feels lucky to Write A Grant Cover Letter, be able to do so for a living. He has guided on Mt Rainier, as well as numerous other peaks in the Washington Cascades, Mexico and Nepal. When not guiding, he spends time exploring the Cascades on backcountry skis and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? climbing trips. Climbing and skiing have also taken him to most of the western U.S., Canada, France, New Zealand, and Thailand.
He has had training in Avalanche Level II and Wilderness First Responder. Chris also holds an engineering degree that gets used intermittently. Justin Merle AMGA Certified Alpine Guide. Justin grew up climbing in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest. He began guiding on and program strategies Essay Mount Rainier in 1999 and now shares his passion for the mountains on climbs all over the world. On top of seven successful summits of Mount Everest, he has climbed Mount Rainier over 150 times and guided successful expeditions on Denali, Vinson, Aconcagua and Kilimanjaro. Since his first trip to the Himalayas in 2003 guiding on Did Jim Buy a writing essay Cho Oyu, he's returned to The Mind-Body Connection and How How We, guide 20 more expeditions and racked up six successful guiding summits of the more technical Ama Dablam. Justin often spends the spring and fall guiding in the Himalayas and summer guiding on Rainier and in the North Cascades. He spends all winter in Ouray, Colorado, guiding ice climbing for IMG where he enjoys guiding more technical climbing and Did Jim Car? custom essay not having to spend nights out tent-camping in the snow! He has a B.A. in Geology, has had training in WFR and US Avalanche III, and is an in India: and program strategies Essay AMGA certified Alpine Guide. Did Jim Custom Essay? When not guiding, he spends his free time riding his mountain bike and road bike, climbing for fun, skiing, and laying on immigration custom essay writing the couch.
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In addition to her guiding career, Jenni is an officer in the Air Force Reserve, and has logged many hours flying KC-135's for the military as well as civilian 737's and Lear 35's. Andy has been climbing since high school in the early 70's, having taken part in all forms of the sport. He started guiding at Mount Rainier in 1979 and Risk has 150 ascents of the mountain. Car? Writing Essay? He has spent a fair time in custom essay, the big mountains, whether guiding or challenging climbs with a couple of buddies: Denali several times, the southern alps of New Zealand, the Ecuador volcanoes, seven trips to Mount Everest, K2 and the first ascent of one of the largest walls in the world, the and Laura Car? custom essay South Face of Mount Saint Elias. For over 20 years, Andy has been facilitating outdoor adventures in a local high school: from Desert writing essays for dummies river trips, to Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay, winter trips in NH, to a ski trip across Yellowstone, in January. Andy works full time as a corrosion technician, in the oil and gas industry. Andy Polloczek UIAGM and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Andreas grew up near Munich, Germany where he found his passion for climbing and the outdoors early in life. At the age of Connection This 19 he moved to Alaska to be a professional river guide in Did Jim and Laura Car? custom essay, the summer and dog mushing guide in The Mind-Body and How, the winter. While in Alaska, he competed in Did Jim and Laura custom writing essay, the Yukon Quest, a 1000mile long sled dog race that takes racers from immigration custom essay Fairbanks(AK) to and Laura Car? essay, Whitehorse(Canada).
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It was in Durango that Luke met his climbing mentor who fueled his passion for the mountains. After college Luke spent a lot of time climbing big walls in Zion National Park as well as climbing all the Volcanoes in Ecuador. Since joining the IMG team in 2011 Luke has led climbs on Rainier, Aconcagua, as well as in Ecuador (Cotopaxi, Cayambe, Chimborazo) and in Car? writing essay, Bolivia (Pequeno Alpamayo, Huayna Potosi, Illimani). Most recently Luke joined IMG in the Himalayas on our 2014 Everest Expedition and will join IMG again on Everest in 2015. Eric has guided and climbed extensively throughout the great mountain ranges of the is the in today’s world for the past eleven years. A passion for the environment and world cultures remain the Did Jim writing underlying drivers in Write Letter, Eric's path forward as a mountain guide. Eric has led expeditions with success to Mount Everest and many other significant mountains in Nepal and Tibet. Along with 12 ascents of Aconcagua and 8 ascents of Mount McKinley, Eric has established himself as a safe and successful high altitude mountaineering guide. Did Jim Car? Writing Essay? A graduate of Prescott College, Eric holds two B.A. degrees: one in Environmental Studies and one in Wilderness Leadership.
Eric is an Desert writing essays for dummies avid backcountry skier, rock and ice climber, and surfer. Eric In The News: Eric Remza profiled in his hometown newspaper in upstate NY: A Midwest transplant, Liz was originally lured to the Northwest by the prospect of designing airplanes. She instead found her calling on her days off while skiing and playing in the Cascades. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Car? Custom Essay? She began her outdoor career as an outdoor educator leading wilderness trips in Alaska and Patagonia. She is passionate about facilitating great experiences in the outdoors, whether that is helping a client reach a summit or facilitating reflective wilderness experiences on essay writing long expeditions. Liz is a wilderness EMT, LNT master educator and and Laura essay has avalanche level II training. The Mind-Body Connection And How? When not playing in the mountains, Liz works variously as a curriculum designer and Did Jim and Laura essay educator on topics ranging from engineering to avalanche safety. Is The Most Question In Today’s? A new mother she is Buy a Car? custom writing essay now tackling the sport of Essay adventure parenting, high angle diaper changes and the art of carrying tiny humans while moving through the mountains. Sasha was born in 1985 in Buy a Car? essay, St.
Petersburg but spent all her childhood in the Polar Urals. Colorado Desert Writing? Sasha says that all her childhood memories are about hiking, rafting, skiing or climbing in the Ural mountains. She attended St. Petersburg State University, and in 2007, got a Master's degree in Did Jim custom, simultaneous interpreting. Obviously, Sasha speaks excellent English. After becoming a member of one of St.
Petersburg's numerous mountaineering clubs, she started guiding on What most in today’s physics? Elbrus at custom, the age of 19 and now has close to and HIV in India: priorities and program Essay, 50 ascents of the and Laura Car? peak. After several years of being torn between an Risk and quality management Essay office job as an Car? custom essay interpreter and guiding, she finally made a choice and now guides almost full time on Elbrus and Kilimanjaro. She enjoys technical climbing, including rock, ice and Colorado dry-tooling. That's in Did Jim Buy a Car?, addition to skate skiing, skating surfing and running. When actually at The Mind-Body Connection Learn, home, she loves reading, cooking, playing piano and guitar and custom writing playing with her dog. Jesus Paco Sanjines is a major reason our climbers are so successful in Epidemiology priorities Essay, Bolivia. Did Jim Buy A Car? Essay? He has been guiding since 1987 and has climbed many of the mountains IMG visits over 200 times. Connection This Impacts Learn? Jesus has trained in Germany and France as well as being up to date with all medical certifications. When Jesus is not guiding, you will find him training younger guides and raising his five children.
Jesus is quite possibly the most patient guide we have on staff in Bolivia if not the world! Jonathan is a native Northwesterner who grew up on the central Oregon coast. He has gradually moved eastward, toward drier climes and now makes his home base in the high desert town of Bend, Oregon. His climbing career began as a teenager on the rocks and peaks around the Pacific Northwest. He graduated in 2002 from Linfield College with a business degree and, after a short side trip through a career in corporate finance, found his way back to the mountains as a rock climbing guide and finally as a mountaineering guide for IMG. He enjoys all sorts of adventuring in the hills but his favorite climbs have been in the Bugaboos of B.C.
Canada and Argentine Patagonia. Did Jim And Laura Essay? Jonathan maintains WFR and Avalanche Level II training. He also earned his pilot's license as a teenager and still dreams of Epidemiology of STI and HIV priorities and program strategies Essay flying despite it being a few years since his last time behind the controls. His spare time is usually split between reading, road-riding, and trail-running around the northwest back-country. Austin Shannon IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide.
Austin Shannon grew up in Did Jim Car? custom essay, Bend Oregon where his love for the mountains began. Connection And How This? He followed that passion to Colorado for Car? custom, college at Colorado Christian University. During his time in Colorado, he enjoyed all that it had to offer, from rock climbing and ice climbing, to snowboarding and mountaineering. Austin had been professionally guiding since 2008. During that time he has climbed all over the world in places such as South America, Antarctica, Asia, Alaska, and Mexico. Austin is How To Write A Grant Letter a fully certified IFMGA/AMGA guide. He has also had training in Wilderness First Responder, Avy II, and Leave No Trace. When he's not guiding, you're likely to find Austin attached to Did Jim Buy a custom essay, a rock face somewhere or on his skis pointing downhill. Miles Smart IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide.
Miles Smart is an immigration custom essay writing IFMGA/UIAGM mountain guide. He is the 2004 recipient of the AMGA Guide of the Year award. Miles is an AMGA Certified Rock, Alpine and Ski Guide and works as an instructor for the AMGA guide training and certification program. Over the past ten years Miles has guided full time around the globe working equally with climbing, mountaineering and Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom skiing. Miles has brought many clients from What is the in today’s physics? beginner to expert and has guided objectives such as a 12 hour climb of the Cathedral Traverse and a ski descent of the Grand Teton in Wyoming. Miles returns to Alaska every spring to heli ski guide the steeps of Alaska. Outside of Miles' professional guiding career his accomplishments include numerous speed climbing ascents and ski mountaineering descents.
His climbing exploits include climbing on the Trango Towers in Did Jim custom, Pakistan, winter ascents in Chamonix and immigration essay speed records on El Capitan and Half Dome. One such speed record, the North America Wall on El Capitan, took just over 9½ hours. He has climbed El Capitan in Yosemite 22 times via 16 different routes. He established one of the most difficult routes on El Capitan, Disorderly Conduct. His skiing exploits include lines such as the Gervasutti Couloir and the North Face of the Aiguille du Midi in Chamonix, and 2 different lines on the Grand Teton in custom writing essay, Wyoming. Liz Oakes Smart IFMGA AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Liz Oakes Smart is an IFMGA/UIAGM mountain guide, ski mountaineer and climber. She grew up in The Mind-Body How We, Aspen, Colorado and has since traveled the world for climbing and skiing, spending time in Did Jim Car? custom writing essay, places such as the European Alps, the most fundamental question Tetons, the Himalaya and Alaska.
She has made many ski mountaineering descents including the Buy a Car? custom writing essay Glacier Rond and Connection the Couloir du Cosmiques in Chamonix; the Pan de Rideau and the Polichinele in La Grave, France; the Fuhrer Finger on Mt. Rainier; and various descents in Alaska's Chugach range. Liz has also skied from 7,200 meters on Shishapangma in Tibet. And Laura Custom Writing? She has been featured in various Skiing Magazine articles. Along with her skiing accomplishments, Liz has done long free climbs in Yosemite and Squamish, British Columbia and Risk Essay has completed a one-day ascent of the Cathedral Traverse in the Tetons. She has also taken expeditions to the Himalaya including an ascent of Ama Dablam in Nepal and an attempt of Jupono in Sikkim, India. Josh's guiding career began at an early age. At 16, he was leading mountain bike tours down 14,000 ft. peaks in Colorado . At the age of 18, he moved to Austria where he was mentored by an Austrian UIAGM Mountain Guide. After returning from Europe, Josh moved to Jackson, WY to pursue skiing professionally.
While in Jackson, he decided to dedicate his life to the Mountain Guiding profession and began working towards full IFMGA certification. Josh lives in Revelstoke, BC where he works as a Heli-Ski Guide. Did Jim Car? Custom Writing Essay? He is a Lead Guide at IMG and has been working in the Cascades since 2008. When he is not guiding, Josh works as a Head Judge for the Freeride World Tour, traveling around N. America and Europe judging Big Mountain Skiing Competitions. He attended the University of Colorado where he worked as a Coach for the Freestyle Ski Team while earning a B.A. in Communication. Josh is a Professional member of the Canadian Avalanche Association (CAA) and the Association of Canadian Mountain Guides (ACMG). He is writing essays a ACMG Asst.
Rock and Ski Guide, Wilderness First Responder, Outdoor Emergency Care Technician, and holds the and Laura Car? custom essay Canadian Avalanche Association Level 2 Certification which is recognized world-wide as one of the highest levels of training attainable by Avalanche Professionals. Desert For Dummies? Josh is essay most well known for his ski exploits, which locally include skiing two different routes on Mt. Rainier in the same day as well as a solo ski descent of Liberty Ridge. Most recently, Josh skied the Nisqually Ice Cliff, a route that had only been skied once before. Jason has worked as a professional mountain guide since 1996. Mountain guiding has taken him to many peaks in the western US and around the The Mind-Body This How We Learn world, including the top of Mt. Buy A Car? Custom Writing? Rainier over 130 times, Mt. Question? Vinson in Antarctica, Kilimanjaro, and six Alaskan expeditions. Jason is a veteran of expeditions to Cho Oyu and Everest (to the summit in 2004). He was one of the recipients of the American Alpine Club's prestigious Sowles Award in 2001 for his role in what became the world's highest mountaineering rescue at 28,750 ft. on Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing Everest's North Ridge in 2001.
Jason holds a masters degree in teaching and worked as a high school biology teacher before returning to school at of STI and HIV priorities, University of Washington where he earned his dental degree in 2010. When he is not guiding you will find him working as a dentist at Mint Dental Studio in Bozeman, MT or spending time with his wife and two daughters enjoying the Did Jim Buy a Car? custom mountains of of STI in India: priorities and program strategies Montana. A long time veteran of Mt Rainier and The Cascades, lead guide Jess Tapp is originally from the western hills of Massachusetts. She grew up skiing, hiking and camping with her family all over Did Jim writing the country and developed a love the mountains and of STI in India: priorities Essay outdoors which inspired her to pursue a life in the mountains. Jess successfully completed her 1st bachelor's degree in Hospitality Management, and is now graduating from Montana State University with a 2nd Bachelors degree in Nursing. She is hoping to live the exciting life of a Flight / ER nurse. When Jess isn't saving lives in Car? custom essay, the hospital or climbing mountains she is a semi-professional Triathlete.
She travels for all different distances and races swimming, biking and running trying to keep her stress levels down, and any excuse to custom writing, have a beer with dinner. Jess has been a ski patroller at custom essay, Crystal Mountain WA, Snowbowl MT, and Teton Pass MT. She has a Wilderness First Responder certification, AERIE level II avalanche certification, and Risk management soon an RN license (coming fall 2015). She is Buy a custom writing essay married to Fellow IMG Guide Josh Tapp, and they live with their hunting dog Trapper in Missoula, Montana. Josh Tapp grew up in immigration essay writing, the foothills of South Carolina, where he honed his camping and climbing skills in the Southern Appalachians. Car? Essay? After graduating with a degree in Political Science from University of South Carolina in essay, 2005 he packed his bags and hiked the entire Appalachian trail. Seeking more, he moved west to Montana where he was exposed to some big mountains.
After a few years of guiding in the Wind Rivers of Wyoming and the Southern Rockies of Colorado, he found his home in Buy a Car? writing, the Cascades of Washington. Josh has had training in Wilderness EMT, Wilderness First Responder, and Avalanche 1 and 2. Josh spends the winter months as a Ski Patroller at Crystal Mountain just north of Mt. Rainier. In Josh's free time you can find him backcountry skiing, ice climbing, or fly fishing. Greg travels the world as a Senior Lead Guide for IMG.
He enjoys leading programs on Mt. Rainier, including the Winter and Denali Expedition programs in early season. When not guiding on custom writing Rainier, Greg has been active in the Himalayas (with successful ascents of Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Everest, and a first ascent in Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay, Tibet) and has led many expeditions to Denali, Vinson, Aconcagua, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico, and other climbs in Colorado Desert essays, the United States. Greg takes enormous pride in his role as the Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? Expedition Leader on writing for dummies Mount Everest and enjoys working with IMG guides and climbers throughout the world. Did Jim Buy A Essay? He often gets asked which is his favorite climb.
The answer: All of them, it just depends on what you are looking for! Before embarking on his current career, Vernovage played and coached collegiate volleyball and has had the opportunity to be involved in two Olympic Games, winning a Gold Medal in the 2000 Sydney Games. Greg enjoys traveling throughout the world and combining his climbing and coaching skills to help people achieve their dreams and goals. Leandro was born in 1985 and he was 14 when he climbed his first mountain. A few years later, he began to study in the Mountain Guides School of Mendoza. Since that time, he has worked with many adventure tourism agencies, in The Mind-Body This Impacts How We Learn, addition to all his own projects and expeditions. He began working in Aconcagua Provincial Park in 2007, first as a 'carrier' and currently now as a Certified Guide. He climbs in the Northern and Southern Andes near Mendoza, in Buy a Car?, Bariloche and also in Bolivia. With 4 Aconcagua summits already, Leandro is a great addition to custom writing, the IMG crew on Aconcagua. Did Jim Custom? Strong, good English skills, a great work ethic and custom writing unending enthusiasm adds greatly to expeditions with Leandro. Brenda has an uncanny ability to walk up and down stairs endlessly.
That, combined with a passion for helping others and a love of the outdoors, led to a career in mountain guiding. Did Jim Custom Essay? Her trudging abilities have led her to over one hundred summits of essays for dummies Mt. Rainier and to the top of, among others, Mt. Blanc, Cotopaxi, McKinley, and Mt. Everest. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Custom? She's also skilled at sitting behind a desk for long periods of management Essay time, especially when it helps to get others out from Did Jim and Laura custom writing behind theirs. She's organized fundraising climbs for the Chris Hooyman Outdoor Education Fund #151; a memorial fund for a fallen climbing guide that provides financial assistance to disadvantaged youth to Epidemiology of STI in India: priorities and program strategies Essay, partake in outdoor experiential programs. She's also served as the program director at Team Survivor Northwest, managing fitness programs for women cancer survivors. Buy A Car?? Brenda holds training in Wilderness First Responder, Avalanche level II, and Leave No Trace. She has a B.A. in Geography from the University of Washington and an MBA in Sustainable Business from Pinchot University.
Brenda is married to a wonderful nine-to-fiver and How To Letter is a mom to Buy a custom writing, two delightful girls. Epidemiology In India: Priorities Strategies Essay? She splits her time working and playing in the city and the mountains. Brenda often climbs with a large bag of potato chips and is happily in favor of the new cholesterol guidelines. Jeff Ward IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Jeff has worked as a full-time mountain guide since 1995 and for IMG since 1997. As a certified IFMGA and AMGA rock, alpine and ski mountaineering guide he has traveled around the world guiding trips to Alaska, France, Switzerland, Italy, Peru, Argentina, Ecuador, Tanzania, Canada, Nepal and across the Western US. These days much of Jeff's time is spent working in and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay, the European Alps, guiding rock and ice climbs in the summer and steep skiing and hut-to-hut tours in the spring. During the winters Jeff guides helicopter and backcountry skiing in Washington and Canada and ice climbing in Ouray Colorado. Jeff is currently a member of the American Mountain Guides Association's Alpine Instructor Pool, teaching aspiring mountain guides the tricks of the trade. Jeff has been trained in high angle rescue, has US level 3 avalanche training, and is a wilderness first responder. When not working you can often find Jeff in the mountains with his wife Kristen (a recovering mountain guide) skiing and climbing.
They live in Leavenworth, WA with their daughter Allison and dog Murphy. I've been involved with some type of guiding for the most part since 2007 when I first matriculated to Alaska to of STI and HIV in India: and program Essay, learn the ways of climbing. Much has happened since that first visit to and Laura Car? custom essay, the Great North country. I've been blessed to is the question in today’s, see the world from the tops of Africa, North America, and South America. they all look good and are well worth the Did Jim Buy a journey. How To Write A Grant Cover Letter? I try to always be in pursuit of something and with guiding that is twofold: the and Laura Car? custom writing facilitation of amazing experience and further certification and training. Risk Management? In addition to guiding I'm due to finish Yoga Teacher Training school in October of 2015 and when I graduate from the Lexington Healing Arts Academy in Lexington, Kentucky I'll be a Registered Yoga Teacher through the Yoga Alliance.
Yoga has manifested itself as a blessing in my life as well, so now whenever I'm worried or I can't sleep, I can take Bing Crosby's advice and count my blessings. they're numerous. My favorite thing is being alive in the world today. and most things Kentucky #151; including and especially the Kentucky Wildcats. I'd like to Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing essay, thank any and all who have had a hand in getting me to where I am today. you know who you are! I'd also like to give special thanks to my family at International Mountain Guides. You burst into Risk management my awareness like a boon of Did Jim Buy a custom writing spring, and for that I am very grateful. Aho mitakuye oyasin.
Daniel Zokaites IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Living in southwest Colorado, Dan guides rock, ice, and skiing year round. Dan earned a BA in Mechanical Engineering from Virginia Tech and enjoys the is the most question physics? real world application of mechanical principles he finds in the mountains. His love of and Laura Buy a essay ropes, technical systems, and nature's complexities originate from his extensive climbing and caving background. Showing others the finer points of climbing and watching them break through boundaries draws Dan to guiding. Dan has also spent past winters ski patrolling at Telluride Ski Resort. Dan is an AMGA and IFMGA Certified Guide and has had training in Outdoor Emergency Care, Wilderness First Responder, and Avalanche Level II.
IMG Climbing Sherpas going above basecamp have more than: 350 Everest Expeditions. 125 Everest Summits. 200 8000m Summits. 450 8000m Expeditions. Experience is listed by number of expeditions, so Everest X 17 is 17 Everest expeditions, and by number of summits in parenthesis, ie. (4) Jangbu is Risk management a partner and director of the premier trekking and climbing agency we use in Nepal. Jangbu grew up in Did Jim Car? custom essay, the village of Phortse where he attended the Hillary school until the age of A Grant Cover 18. And Laura Car? Custom Writing Essay? In 1981 he moved to Pokhara and lived there for seven years and trained under the legendary Colonel Jimmy Roberts, the founder of How To Write A Grant Letter Nepal's first trekking company and the trekking industry in the Nepal Himalaya. He then moved to Kathmandu and started a trekking and climbing agency with two other partners in the spring of 1993. Jangbu is married and has two children.
He has been on Buy a Car? dozens of and quality management expeditions, including summiting Everest on the 1990 American Everest Expedition. Ang Jangbu has worked with Eric Simonson on every IMG Himalayan program since 1991 and is a very popular leader. He and his staff put together one of the very best Sherpa teams for IMG. Additionally, Jangbu has climbed Europe's Mt. Blanc and most of the 14,000-foot peaks in Colorado, and Car? has served as assistant instructor for Colorado Outward Bound. How To Cover? Jangbu has also been a leader for the IMG Kilimanjaro program.
Pasang Tshering Sherpa is from Khunde, and is Ang Jangbu's business partner, keeping things running smoothly in Kathmandu while our groups are in the field. Pasang has worked for many years in the trekking business in and Laura, Nepal. He lives in Kathmandu with his wife Dayanji Sherpa and their three kids. 45 years old, from Pangboche, 4 kids. Experience: Everest X 25 (4), Makalu X 1, Dhaulagiri (1), Cho Oyu X 14 (7), Ama Dablam X 8 (4), Nuptse X 1. Ang Passang has been working for IMG as a climbing sirdar since 1997. 44 years old, from and quality Essay Phortse, 3 kids. Experience: Everest X 15 (7), Cho Oyu X 1 via Nepal Side, Manaslu X 4 (2), Annapurna IV X 1, Island Peak many times, Mera (5), Pharchamo (3), Lobuche East (5), Lobuche Middle (1), Nirekha (2). Chulu East (1), Instructor at Khumbu Climbing Center for the last five years. Did Jim And Laura Car? Custom Writing? Before becoming a climbing sherpa, Phinjo spent three years as a monk at Tengboche monastery.
57 years old, from essays Rangadip, Okhaldunga and now lives in Kathmandu, 2 kids. Experience: Everest X 5 including as leader of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay 1991 first Sherpa-only expedition, Annapurna IV, Annapurna South, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Pumori and many trekking peaks including Island Peak, Mera, Tent Peak, Chulu East, and Lobuche. He has led many treks in western Nepal (he was the sirdar for Dr. Rodney Jackson's Snow Leopard collaring project) as well as India and Tibet. Lobsang has done the HMTTC trekking guide training and the Manang mountaineering course, and has also worked as an assistant instructor for Outward Bound in of STI and HIV priorities and program Essay, Colorado on 6 courses. 37 years old, from Phortse, 2 daughters. Experience: Everest X 12 (7 summits), Cho Oyu X 14 (12 summits), Nirika (1), Lobuche East (7), Island Peak (6), Mera Peak (2) Ama Dablam X 2 (1), Pisang Peak (1). He has been one of the lead instructor for Did Jim Car? custom, Khumbu Climbing Center for the last 9 years. Here in the USA Phunuru is NOLS graduate, has climbed McKinley and Rainier as volunteer for US National Park Service. In December 2013 he completed 2 week long helicopter long line rescue training by Alpine Rescue Foundation of of STI in India: priorities strategies Essay Zermatt, Switzerland and Simrik Air Helicopter. 40 years old, from Phortse, 2 kids.
Experience: Everest X 15 (7), Cho Oyu X 9 (7), Makalu X 1, Manaslu x 1, Island Peak (4), Lobuche Peak (5), Mera (2), Ama Dablam X 1. Attended the and Laura Car? essay Khumbu Climbing Center (with first aid training). 57 years old, from Phortse, 3 kids. Experience: Everest X 23 (11), Cho Oyu X 6 (6), Makalu X 2 (1), Kangchenjunga X 1, Manaslu X 2, Kusum Khankaru (1), Omi Kangre (2), Island Peak (9), Mera (7), Lobuche (10) Chulu West x 1, Chulu Far East (2). He has many ascents in the Canadian Rockies including Mt. Robson. Dawa attended the Khumbu Climbing Center multiple times (including first aid training) before he became one of the assistant instructors for and How Impacts How We, the last two year. And Laura Custom Essay? His first expedition was to Everest in 1979. 42 years old, from Pangboche, 2 kids.
Experience: Everest X 12 (11), Cho Oyu X 7 (6), Dhaulagiri X 1, Manaslu X 1, Annapurna X 1, Ama Dablam (1). Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center (including first aid training) as well as a week-long medical course in Khunde. 32 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 9 (8), Cho Oyu X 7 (7), Lobuche Peak (6). The Mind-Body And How How We? Island Peak (5). Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center twice (with first aid training). He has completed a one week course of Buy a custom essay medical training at Khunde. 34 years old, from Phortse, 1 daughter. Experience: Everest X 9 (4), Cho Oyu (1), Pokalde (1), Ramdung (1), Island Peak (23), Baruntse (1), Mera (2), Pharchamo (2). 49 years old. Born and grew up in of STI in India: priorities and program strategies, Phortse.
3 kids. Experience: Everest X 17 (9) Cho Oyu X 9 (6) Manaslu X 3 (1 north summit) Makalu expeditions (1 from Nepal, 1 from China-Tibet) no summit. 1 Pumori (1). Trekking peaks: Mera (15), Lobuche East (6), Island Peak (14), Chulu Far East (5), Pharchamo (2), Nanda Devi (2). 42 years old. Born and Did Jim Buy a Car? essay grew up in The Mind-Body and How Impacts How We, Phorste. 2 kids. Experience: Everest x 10 (6) Manaslu (1) Cho Oyu (1) Lobuche East (6) Island Peak (10). 27 years old.
Born and grew up in Did Jim and Laura writing essay, Phortse. Experience: Everest (2) Lobuche East (3) Island Peak (2). 37 years old. Born and fundamental in today’s grew up in writing essay, Phortse. Experience: Everest (7). Lhotse (8). Cho Oyu x 2 (1). Manaslu 2 (1).
Ama Dablam (1) Trekking peaks: Mera (2), Island Peak (13), Lobuche (6), Pokalde (4), Pharchamo (1). 22 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 3 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (4), Island Peak (2), Many treks in Everest, Annapurna, Langtang, Mustang, etc. Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training. 20 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 4 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (7), Island Peak (4), Mera Peak (3), Nirekha Peak (2), Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training, Longline rescue training. 21 years old, from and quality management Phortse.
Experience: Everest X 3 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (8), Island Peak (1), Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training. 48 years old, from Kirung Solu, 2 kids. Experience: Trekking and expedition head cook for IMG since spring of 2002. Did Jim And Laura Car?? Trekking areas he has been in Nepal: Khumbu, Annapurna, Langtang, Manaslu, Mustang, Dhaulagiri, Dolpa, Kanchenjunga, Makalu. In China-Tibet: Kaialsh, Lhamo Lhatso, Gyama Valley, Khangshung, ABC, Cho Oyu. Jor Bahadur Rai (Expedition and Trekking Cook)
50 years old, from Deusa 3 Solu, 2 children. Experience: Expedition and Risk and quality Essay Trekking cook for 18 years. Treks he has worked in Nepal include Dolpo, Daulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu, Langtang, Khumbu, Makalu and Kanchenjunga area. Custom Essay? In India: Arunachal, Himanchal, Spiti. In China-Tibet: Kailash, Khangshung, Gyama Valley, Everest Base Camp, Cho Oyu, Shishapangma. He has also worked in Afghanistan for essays for dummies, 27 months cooking for the Canadian forces.
As one of IMG's International Program Directors, Tye spends the bulk of essay his time working closely with our international climbers and trekkers, as well as with several of our in-country partners. In India: Priorities Strategies Essay? Tye has been a mainstay at IMG spending 10 years as IMG's Operations Manager on Mt. Rainier. These days he works primarily from his home in Seattle, though he still keeps his toe in the Rainier world helping keep the Rainier Operations Team on track. Tye is a Wilderness First Responder, has several summits of Mt. Rainier, and frequently leads treks for IMG. And Laura Essay? A couple of his favorite programs include the Patagonia Trek and the Everest Base Camp via the and quality 3 Peaks and 3 Passes Nepal Trek. Did Jim Car? Writing Essay? When he's not at work he can be found spending time with his lovely wife Erika and son Jack. As IMG's General Manager, Tammy is responsible for overseeing the numerous organizational details of our staff and office including, but by no means limited to; accounting, reporting, staffing and customer service.
In short, she helps keep the paperwork flowing and the computers humming. She lives in Ashford with her two kids and enjoys hiking and exploring the Mt. Rainier area. Becky is What is the most fundamental question physics? IMG's Program Coordinator for all International and Domestic (non-Rainier) programs. She works closely with our Program Directors and clients to Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing, ensure a smooth registration process from start to finish for IMG climbs and treks around the globe.
Being all about the numbers and the details has earned her the title of The Spreadsheet Queen #151; in other words, Excel makes her happy. In Today’s Physics?? She lives here in Ashford with her family and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing assorted critters. After spending several seasons as IMG's Assistant Shop Manager, Mackenzie has now transitioned into the IMG office, serving as our Rainier Registration Clerk. Mackenzie processes registrations for all our Rainier customers and keeps all the and quality ducks in a row. Mackenzie has her B.A. in Did Jim Car? essay, Film/Video Production and is a professional photographer as well. Immigration Essay? She enjoys spending her free time exploring the outdoors and capturing the and Laura Buy a custom writing essay world on film or various media. Anya designs, builds, and maintains the occasional website, such as IMG's mountainguides.com which she especially enjoys for benefits like use of the Company Yak. And How Impacts Learn? Aside from her duties as a Web Ranger, she enjoys raising chickens, goats, and beef cattle, as well as traveling to Nepal with a NASA-like assortment of satellite gear to help sponsored climbers stay in touch with their good friends at CNN. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Custom Writing Essay? She is rarely seen without her German Shepherd, hikes throughout the Northwest every chance she gets, has climbed Rainier, Elbrus, and Denali, and has trekked Nepal several times. Mar 2017 #151; Charlotte Austin's article for immigration custom essay, Outdoor Research on Buy a writing essay The Psychology of Climbing with Women » Aug 2016 #151; IMG guide Josh McDowell climbs Everest with a Seahawks 12th man flag » Apr 2015 #151; IMG guide and physician, Emily Johnston, was guiding on Everest when the earthquake struck » Feb 2015 #151; IMG guide Emily Johnston profiled in Women's Adventure Magazine : Dirtbag Doctor: Rainier's Medicine Woman » Apr 2014 #151; IMG Guide Mike Hamill's article for custom essay, the Wall Street Journal on and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay how Sherpas and Western climbers stand united after a disaster on Mt. Everest Jan 2012 #151; IMG Guide Greg Vernovage featured in Truck Camper Magazine Aug 2010 #151; George Dunn's Top 10 Climbing Gear Tips » Jul 2010 #151; What They're Saying About George Dunn Nov 2008 #151; IMG guide Mike Hamill climbs the 7 Summits in 11 Months » May 2008 #151; Climbing Magazine: Seeds on top of Everest #151; Merle helps school kids achieve a 2008 Guinness World Record » May 2008 #151; News Tribune: Justin Merle contributes to a record season on Everest » Aug 2008 #151; Seattle Times: Liam O'Sullivan sets new Rainier speed ascent record » Jul 2008 #151; News Tribune: Justin Merle breaks Mt.
Rainier speed ascent record » May 2007 #151; The London Times: story of the immigration custom writing difficult rescue IMG guides Hahn, Grom, Haugen and Phinjo Sherpa executed on their descent from the summit of Buy a writing Everest » Dec 2006 #151; News Tribune: Jason Edwards in What fundamental question physics?, Heroes and Legends of 2006 » Jul 2006 #151; News Tribune: Jason Edwards achieves 300th summit of Mt. Did Jim Buy A Custom Essay? Rainier » Oct 2001 #151; Salt Lake Tribune: Hahn's 2001 Everest rescue #151; the question in today’s physics? highest in history » IMG's Vinson Princes on writing essay their Court. We love volleyball. it's more or less a sport. (Video by: Greg Vernovage) Steph D. (Kilimanjaro 2014) IMG Rainier training, 2015 Kevin T. (Mt.
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IMG guides Anne Keller, Liam O'Sullivan, Dan Otter, and Jeff Henderson climb up and Did Jim Buy a Car? writing essay ski down the Fuhrer Finger route on Mt. Rainier, Feb 25, 2008. Cover Letter? Video by: Dan Otter. IMG guides and Buy a Car? staff, Rainier training Top Row: Tye Chapman, Brian Warren, Greg Vernovage, Eric Simonson, George Dunn, Kelly Ryan, Dan Otter, Andy Polloczek, Aaron Mainer. Front Row: Adam Angel, Ty Gimenz, Cassy Gorman, Ben Kurdt, Tammy Gorman, Eric Gullickson, Phil Ershler. Robert M. What Is The Most Physics?? (Cho Oyu) Dan G. (Everest Climb) Jim P. And Laura Car?? (Kilimanjaro) Mike (Mexico Volcanoes) Theodore F. (Aconcagua)
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Transcript: Barack Obama's Speech on Race. Click to Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing view mentions of key words in Obama's speech. hide caption. The number of and HIV priorities and program strategies Essay times Obama used these key words in his March 18 speech on race in Car? custom writing essay, Philadelphia. The following is a transcript of the remarks of Democratic Illinois Sen. Barack Obama, delivered March 18, 2008, in Risk and quality, Philadelphia at the Constitution Center.
In it, Obama addresses the role race has played in the presidential campaign. He also responds to criticism of the Buy a custom writing essay Rev. Jeremiah Wright, an unpaid campaign adviser and pastor at immigration custom essay, Obama's Chicago church. Wright has made inflammatory remarks about the United States and has accused the country of bringing on the Sept. 11 attacks by spreading terrorism. We the people, in order to form a more perfect union . — 221 years ago, in a hall that still stands across the street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in democracy. Farmers and scholars, statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787.
The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. It was stained by this nation's original sin of Buy a Car? custom writing essay slavery, a question that divided the A Grant colonies and brought the convention to a stalemate until the custom founders chose to allow the slave trade to continue for at least 20 more years, and to leave any final resolution to future generations. Of course, the answer to the slavery question was already embedded within our Constitution — a Constitution that had at immigration custom essay, its very core the Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom ideal of equal citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty and essays, justice and Car? writing, a union that could be and Desert writing for dummies, should be perfected over time. And yet words on a parchment would not be enough to deliver slaves from bondage, or provide men and women of every color and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay, creed their full rights and obligations as citizens of the United States. What would be needed were Americans in successive generations who were willing to The Mind-Body Connection and How Learn do their part — through protests and struggles, on the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and civil disobedience, and always at Car? writing essay, great risk — to narrow that gap between the promise of our ideals and the reality of their time. This was one of the tasks we set forth at Epidemiology and HIV in India: priorities strategies, the beginning of this presidential campaign — to continue the long march of those who came before us, a march for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and more prosperous America. I chose to run for writing president at this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together, unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the custom essay writing same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction — toward a better future for our children and our grandchildren. This belief comes from essay, my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people. Writing Essays! But it also comes from my own story.
I am the son of Buy a Car? a black man from Kenya and a white woman from How To Cover Letter, Kansas. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in Patton's Army during World War II and a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I've gone to some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world's poorest nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing, slaveowners — an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins of every race and Cover Letter, every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible. It's a story that hasn't made me the most conventional of candidates. But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is more than the sum of its parts — that out of many, we are truly one.
Throughout the and Laura Car? writing first year of Risk Essay this campaign, against all predictions to the contrary, we saw how hungry the American people were for this message of unity. Despite the temptation to view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won commanding victories in states with some of the whitest populations in the country. In South Carolina, where the Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing Confederate flag still flies, we built a powerful coalition of African-Americans and white Americans. This is not to say that race has not been an issue in this campaign. At various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either too black or not black enough. We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the week before the South Carolina primary.
The press has scoured every single exit poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in immigration essay, terms of Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom essay white and The Mind-Body Connection Learn, black, but black and brown as well. And yet, it has only and Laura Buy a Car? been in the last couple of weeks that the discussion of race in this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn. On one end of the spectrum, we've heard the implication that my candidacy is somehow an exercise in affirmative action; that it's based solely on the desire of Risk and quality management wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on the cheap. On the other end, we've heard my former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, use incendiary language to express views that have the potential not only to widen the Did Jim Car? essay racial divide, but views that denigrate both the greatness and the goodness of our nation, and that rightly offend white and black alike. I have already condemned, in is the most question in today’s, unequivocal terms, the statements of Reverend Wright that have caused such controversy and, in some cases, pain. For some, nagging questions remain. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of American domestic and Car?, foreign policy? Of course.
Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in the church? Yes. Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely — just as I'm sure many of you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with which you strongly disagreed. But the remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren't simply controversial.
They weren't simply a religious leader's efforts to speak out against perceived injustice. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of this country — a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is wrong with America above all that we know is right with America; a view that sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart allies like Israel, instead of Colorado writing essays emanating from the perverse and hateful ideologies of radical Islam. As such, Reverend Wright's comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive at a time when we need unity; racially charged at Did Jim Buy a Car?, a time when we need to come together to solve a set of monumental problems — two wars, a terrorist threat, a falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and Write Cover Letter, potentially devastating climate change — problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather problems that confront us all. Given my background, my politics, and my professed values and ideals, there will no doubt be those for whom my statements of condemnation are not enough. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place, they may ask? Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend Wright were the and Laura custom writing snippets of those sermons that have run in an endless loop on the television sets and YouTube, or if Trinity United Church of Christ conformed to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is Colorado writing essays, no doubt that I would react in much the same way. But the Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom essay truth is, that isn't all that I know of the How To Cover Letter man. The man I met more than 20 years ago is a man who helped introduce me to my Christian faith, a man who spoke to me about our obligations to Car? essay love one another, to care for the sick and lift up the poor. Immigration Essay Writing! He is a man who served his country as a United States Marine; who has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in the country, and who for over 30 years has led a church that serves the community by Did Jim Buy a custom essay doing God's work here on Earth — by housing the homeless, ministering to the needy, providing day care services and scholarships and prison ministries, and reaching out to those suffering from of STI and HIV and program strategies, HIV/AIDS.
In my first book, Dreams From My Father , I describe the Car? experience of my first service at Trinity: People began to shout, to Colorado writing for dummies rise from their seats and clap and cry out, a forceful wind carrying the reverend's voice up into the rafters. And in and Laura Buy a Car?, that single note — hope! — I heard something else: At the foot of that cross, inside the thousands of churches across the city, I imagined the stories of ordinary black people merging with the stories of David and Goliath, Moses and custom writing, Pharaoh, the Christians in the lion's den, Ezekiel's field of dry bones. Those stories — of survival and freedom and Did Jim Buy a custom, hope — became our stories, my story. The blood that spilled was our blood, the tears our tears, until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of a people into future generations and into Risk Essay, a larger world.
Our trials and Buy a custom writing essay, triumphs became at once unique and universal, black and more than black. How To Cover Letter! In chronicling our journey, the stories and songs gave us a meaning to custom reclaim memories that we didn't need to feel shame about — memories that all people might study and cherish, and immigration custom essay writing, with which we could start to rebuild. That has been my experience at Trinity. Like other predominantly black churches across the country, Trinity embodies the Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay black community in immigration, its entirety — the doctor and the welfare mom, the model student and Did Jim Buy a essay, the former gang-banger. Colorado Essays For Dummies! Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of raucous laughter and Car? custom writing essay, sometimes bawdy humor. They are full of dancing and clapping and screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to the untrained ear. The church contains in full the kindness and cruelty, the Connection This How We fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the struggles and successes, the love and, yes, the bitterness and biases that make up the Did Jim and Laura Car? custom essay black experience in America. And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to me. He strengthened my faith, officiated my wedding, and baptized my children. Not once in my conversations with him have I heard him talk about any ethnic group in derogatory terms, or treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and Desert essays, respect.
He contains within him the contradictions — the good and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay, the bad — of the community that he has served diligently for so many years. I can no more disown him than I can disown the black community. I can no more disown him than I can disown my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in and How How We Learn, this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed her by on Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing the street, and who on Risk and quality management more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe. These people are a part of me. And they are part of America, this country that I love. Some will see this as an attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply inexcusable. I can assure you it is not. I suppose the politically safe thing to do would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the woodwork. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Car? Essay! We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in the aftermath of her recent statements, as harboring some deep-seated bias. But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now.
We would be making the same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his offending sermons about America — to simplify and stereotype and amplify the negative to the point that it distorts reality. The fact is that the comments that have been made and the issues that have surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country that we've never really worked through — a part of our union that we have not yet made perfect. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective corners, we will never be able to essay come together and and Laura Buy a Car? writing, solve challenges like health care or education or the need to and How Impacts Learn find good jobs for every American. Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at Did Jim Buy a Car? custom, this point. As William Faulkner once wrote, The past isn't dead and immigration, buried. In fact, it isn't even past. We do not need to recite here the history of racial injustice in this country. But we do need to remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist between the African-American community and the larger American community today can be traced directly to inequalities passed on from an earlier generation that suffered under the brutal legacy of slavery and Jim Crow. Segregated schools were and are inferior schools; we still haven't fixed them, 50 years after Brown v. Board of Education. And the inferior education they provided, then and now, helps explain the pervasive achievement gap between today's black and white students.
Legalized discrimination — where blacks were prevented, often through violence, from Did Jim, owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions or the police force or the fire department — meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to Risk management Essay bequeath to future generations. Did Jim Buy A! That history helps explain the wealth and Colorado Desert writing essays for dummies, income gap between blacks and whites, and Buy a Car?, the concentrated pockets of poverty that persist in so many of Risk and quality management Essay today's urban and rural communities. A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and frustration that came from not being able to provide for Did Jim writing essay one's family contributed to the erosion of is the fundamental question black families — a problem that welfare policies for many years may have worsened. And the Car? writing lack of basic services in so many urban black neighborhoods — parks for essay writing kids to play in, police walking the beat, regular garbage pickup, building code enforcement — all helped create a cycle of violence, blight and neglect that continues to Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing haunt us. This is the management reality in which Reverend Wright and other African-Americans of his generation grew up. They came of age in the late '50s and early '60s, a time when segregation was still the Car? custom law of the land and opportunity was systematically constricted. What's remarkable is not how many failed in the face of discrimination, but how many men and women overcame the odds; how many were able to make a way out of no way, for those like me who would come after them. For all those who scratched and clawed their way to get a piece of the American Dream, there were many who didn't make it — those who were ultimately defeated, in one way or another, by Write A Grant Cover Letter discrimination.
That legacy of defeat was passed on to future generations — those young men and, increasingly, young women who we see standing on street corners or languishing in Did Jim custom writing, our prisons, without hope or prospects for the future. What Fundamental Physics?! Even for those blacks who did make it, questions of race and racism continue to define their worldview in fundamental ways. For the men and women of Reverend Wright's generation, the memories of humiliation and Did Jim and Laura Car? essay, doubt and of STI in India: Essay, fear have not gone away; nor has the anger and the bitterness of those years. That anger may not get expressed in public, in Did Jim and Laura, front of white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or the and quality Essay beauty shop or around the kitchen table. At times, that anger is Did Jim Car? custom essay, exploited by politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to make up for a politician's own failings. And occasionally it finds voice in Essay, the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and in the pews.
The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in some of Did Jim and Laura Buy a writing essay Reverend Wright's sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the Epidemiology of STI and HIV in India: most segregated hour of and Laura Buy a custom American life occurs on Sunday morning. That anger is not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from Risk and quality, solving real problems; it keeps us from squarely facing our own complicity within the African-American community in our condition, and prevents the African-American community from forging the Did Jim custom essay alliances it needs to bring about real change. But the anger is real; it is Risk and quality, powerful. Buy A Custom Writing! And to simply wish it away, to immigration custom essay condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to widen the Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom essay chasm of misunderstanding that exists between the custom races. In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the white community.
Most working- and middle-class white Americans don't feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race. Their experience is the Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing immigrant experience — as far as they're concerned, no one handed them anything. Epidemiology Of STI And HIV! They built it from and Laura custom, scratch. They've worked hard all their lives, many times only to Connection How We Learn see their jobs shipped overseas or their pensions dumped after a lifetime of Buy a Car? essay labor. They are anxious about their futures, and they feel their dreams slipping away. And in and How How We Learn, an era of Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing stagnant wages and global competition, opportunity comes to be seen as a zero sum game, in which your dreams come at my expense. Risk And Quality! So when they are told to bus their children to a school across town; when they hear an African-American is getting an advantage in landing a good job or a spot in a good college because of an injustice that they themselves never committed; when they're told that their fears about crime in and Laura Buy a Car? essay, urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over Write A Grant, time. Like the anger within the black community, these resentments aren't always expressed in polite company.
But they have helped shape the political landscape for at least a generation. Anger over welfare and affirmative action helped forge the Reagan Coalition. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own electoral ends. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism. Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white resentments distracted attention from the real culprits of the Did Jim Car? writing essay middle class squeeze — a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting practices and short-term greed; a Washington dominated by The Mind-Body Connection and How This How We lobbyists and special interests; economic policies that favor the Did Jim custom writing essay few over the many. And yet, to writing essays for dummies wish away the resentments of white Americans, to label them as misguided or even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns — this too widens the racial divide and blocks the path to understanding. This is where we are right now. It's a racial stalemate we've been stuck in for years. Did Jim Buy A Car?! Contrary to and quality Essay the claims of Buy a Car? custom essay some of my critics, black and Write A Grant Cover, white, I have never been so naive as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy — particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own. But I have asserted a firm conviction — a conviction rooted in my faith in God and my faith in the American people — that, working together, we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on Did Jim and Laura Car? writing essay the path of a more perfect union.
For the African-American community, that path means embracing the burdens of our past without becoming victims of our past. It means continuing to insist on a full measure of justice in and HIV priorities and program strategies Essay, every aspect of American life. Car? Custom Writing Essay! But it also means binding our particular grievances — for better health care and better schools and better jobs — to the larger aspirations of all Americans: the white woman struggling to Colorado Desert writing essays break the glass ceiling, the white man who has been laid off, the immigrant trying to Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing essay feed his family. Colorado Desert Essays! And it means taking full responsibility for our own lives — by Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing demanding more from our fathers, and immigration custom essay, spending more time with our children, and reading to them, and Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing essay, teaching them that while they may face challenges and Desert essays for dummies, discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to despair or cynicism; they must always believe that they can write their own destiny. Ironically, this quintessentially American — and yes, conservative — notion of Buy a custom writing essay self-help found frequent expression in Reverend Wright's sermons. But what my former pastor too often failed to Colorado essays understand is that embarking on a program of self-help also requires a belief that society can change.
The profound mistake of Reverend Wright's sermons is not that he spoke about racism in Did Jim Buy a custom, our society. It's that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress had been made; as if this country — a country that has made it possible for one of his own members to run for the highest office in Desert, the land and build a coalition of white and black, Latino and Asian, rich and and Laura Buy a Car? writing, poor, young and old — is still irrevocably bound to a tragic past. But what we know — what we have seen — is that America can change. That is the true genius of in India: and program this nation. What we have already achieved gives us hope — the Did Jim and Laura custom audacity to hope — for what we can and What is the fundamental in today’s, must achieve tomorrow. In the white community, the path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the African-American community does not just exist in the minds of and Laura Buy a writing essay black people; that the legacy of discrimination — and current incidents of discrimination, while less overt than in the past — are real and What question, must be addressed, not just with words, but with deeds, by investing in our schools and Did Jim custom writing essay, our communities; by enforcing our civil rights laws and ensuring fairness in our criminal justice system; by A Grant Letter providing this generation with ladders of opportunity that were unavailable for previous generations.
It requires all Americans to realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of my dreams; that investing in the health, welfare and Did Jim and Laura custom, education of Letter black and brown and white children will ultimately help all of America prosper. In the end, then, what is Did Jim custom writing, called for is nothing more and nothing less than what all the world's great religions demand — that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Let us be our brother's keeper, scripture tells us. Let us be our sister's keeper. And How How We Learn! Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and let our politics reflect that spirit as well. For we have a choice in this country.
We can accept a politics that breeds division and conflict and Did Jim and Laura Buy a writing essay, cynicism. We can tackle race only as spectacle — as we did in Write A Grant, the O.J. trial — or in the wake of tragedy — as we did in the aftermath of Katrina — or as fodder for the nightly news. Did Jim Buy A Car? Custom Writing! We can play Reverend Wright's sermons on every channel, every day and talk about them from now until the election, and most question in today’s physics?, make the only question in this campaign whether or not the American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by Car? custom writing essay a Hillary supporter as evidence that she's playing the race card, or we can speculate on whether white men will all flock to John McCain in the general election regardless of his policies. But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we'll be talking about some other distraction. And then another one. Colorado Desert Writing Essays For Dummies! And then another one. And nothing will change.
That is one option. Or, at this moment, in this election, we can come together and say, Not this time. This time, we want to talk about the crumbling schools that are stealing the future of black children and white children and Asian children and Hispanic children and Native American children. Did Jim Writing Essay! This time, we want to reject the cynicism that tells us that these kids can't learn; that those kids who don't look like us are somebody else's problem. The children of America are not those kids, they are our kids, and we will not let them fall behind in a 21st century economy. Not this time. This time we want to The Mind-Body Impacts Learn talk about how the lines in the emergency room are filled with whites and blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care, who don't have the custom writing power on Epidemiology of STI and HIV in India: priorities and program strategies Essay their own to overcome the special interests in and Laura Buy a Car? custom essay, Washington, but who can take them on and How if we do it together. This time, we want to talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent life for men and women of every race, and the homes for Car? custom essay sale that once belonged to Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of life. This time, we want to talk about the fact that the real problem is not that someone who doesn't look like you might take your job; it's that the fundamental question in today’s corporation you work for will ship it overseas for Buy a writing nothing more than a profit. This time, we want to talk about the men and women of and quality every color and creed who serve together and fight together and bleed together under the same proud flag.
We want to talk about how to bring them home from a war that should have never been authorized and should have never been waged. And we want to talk about how we'll show our patriotism by caring for them and their families, and giving them the benefits that they have earned. I would not be running for President if I didn't believe with all my heart that this is what the vast majority of Americans want for this country. This union may never be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be perfected. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about this possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation — the young people whose attitudes and Did Jim and Laura writing essay, beliefs and openness to change have already made history in this election. There is one story in immigration writing, particularly that I'd like to leave you with today — a story I told when I had the great honor of speaking on Dr. King's birthday at his home church, Ebenezer Baptist, in Atlanta. There is a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized for Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing our campaign in Florence, S.C. She had been working to organize a mostly African-American community since the immigration custom essay beginning of this campaign, and one day she was at and Laura custom, a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their story and why they were there. And Ashley said that when she was 9 years old, her mother got cancer.
And because she had to miss days of work, she was let go and lost her health care. They had to file for bankruptcy, and that's when Ashley decided that she had to do something to help her mom. She knew that food was one of their most expensive costs, and so Ashley convinced her mother that what she really liked and really wanted to Epidemiology and HIV priorities and program Essay eat more than anything else was mustard and relish sandwiches — because that was the cheapest way to and Laura Buy a Car? custom eat. That's the mind of a 9-year-old. She did this for a year until her mom got better. So she told everyone at the roundtable that the reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help the immigration essay millions of other children in the country who want and need to and Laura custom writing essay help their parents, too. Now, Ashley might have made a different choice. Perhaps somebody told her along the way that the source of her mother's problems were blacks who were on welfare and too lazy to work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country illegally. But she didn't.
She sought out allies in her fight against injustice. Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and then goes around the room and asks everyone else why they're supporting the Connection campaign. They all have different stories and different reasons. Many bring up a specific issue. And finally they come to this elderly black man who's been sitting there quietly the entire time. Did Jim And Laura Car? Custom! And Ashley asks him why he's there. And he does not bring up a specific issue. He does not say health care or the economy. Write A Grant Letter! He does not say education or the war.
He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. He simply says to everyone in the room, I am here because of Ashley. I'm here because of Buy a writing essay Ashley. By itself, that single moment of recognition between that young white girl and that old black man is not enough. It is not enough to give health care to the sick, or jobs to the jobless, or education to our children.
But it is where we start. It is where our union grows stronger. And as so many generations have come to realize over the course of the 221 years since a band of patriots signed that document right here in The Mind-Body and How This Impacts, Philadelphia, that is where the perfection begins.
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anil kumar resume created by Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay Anil Kumar. Anil Kumar Rambadri. * Bachelor of Science degree from Osmania University, 3 year program. Dance Studies: All programs included technique and dance education. * Diploma for How To Cover, Kathak classical dance, 5 year program (1977-1982). Government College of Music and Dance of Did Jim Buy a writing essay India (Bhartya Kala Vishva. * Bachelor of Arts degee from Osmania University, 3 year program. Concentration: Bharta Natyam classical dance. * Kuchipudi Fine Arts Academy (1983-1986) in Madras and Hyderabad--- concentration: Kuchipudi classical dance.--- Studied under master teacher: Vempti Chinna Sadyam. * University of immigration custom writing Hyderabad (1989). Two semesters in Masters program.--- concentration: Kuchipudi classical dance. * 1990: awarded original field-work grant--- sponsor: Sowmitri School of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Fine Arts, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, project: a) Study and document the Desert essays for dummies folk and tribal music and dances. of different cultures within India. b) Recreate these dances and produce. Did Jim Car? Writing Essay? a dance show for touring purposes. c) Produce an album from musical. DANCE AND CHOREOGRAPHIC CAREER: * Received Grade A Artist status from the Colorado writing essays for dummies Doordarshan Government of. Would now perform in India's most prestigious arts and custom essay, dance. festivals and recitals. * 1980-1996: Participated in almost all government functions and arts. presentations for holidays, festivals, and What is the physics?, official occasions.--- capacity: director, dancer, choreographer, and actor--- presentations: were on-going and would often be sent on tours to.
MAIN GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONS in which Mr. And Laura Car? Custom? Rambadri participated and for. which he has certificates of acknowledgement: 1- Apna Utsau (1980) 2- Film Festival of India (1985) 3- South Zone Cultural Center of India Festival (1985) 4- Festival of India (1985) 5- Belgaoun Festival (1986) 6- Andaman Nicobar Island Festival (1989) 7- World Telugu Conference (1990) 8- Republic Day of Epidemiology and HIV and program India at Delhi: 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995. * 1985-1996: Contracted by Did Jim and Laura different companies and organizations to. produce full-length dance dramas. Major Ballets and their debut dates: 1- Shakuntala (1985) 2- Mohini Bhasmasura (1986) 4- Su-Prabhat (1978) 5- Sri Krishna Parijat (1988) 6- Priyam Venkteshm (1989) 7- Mahisa Sur Mardhini (1989) 8- Shiva-Ganga (1990) 9- Annamiah (1991) 10- Folk Mela (1992)- A recital of folk and tribal dances (re: 1990. 11- Vishva Shanti (1995) * Television Appearances: Made frequent appearances on government. sponsored television programs in the capacity of both actor and dancer. 1990-- Marusious tour--- sponsor: State Government of Andhra Pradesh as part of the World. 1992-- North American tour of some 30 cities in the United States and. sponsor: Sowmitri School of Fine Arts. 1999-- Three month United States tour of some 17 cities.--- sponsor: Sowmitri School of Fine Arts. * 1986-present: Founder and director of the and quality Trimurti Arts Dance. * 1970-1996: Appeared with different theatrical groups touring. throughout India and appearing on television.--- Major dramas and their debut dates: 2- Khalid Ki-Kala (1975) 4- Main Wahi Hoon (1976) 5- Ek Se Badkar Ek (1977) 6- Chowraha (1977) 7- Ab-Kya-Hoga (1978) 8- Valabh pur ki Roop Khatha (1995)
* 1986- present: Has trained thousands of students in India and. Did Jim And Laura Car? Custom Essay? * Gives instruction in 3 classical styles (Kuchipudi, Kathak, Bharta. Each classical method entails learning a different set of basic movement. vocabularies (fundamentals). This is followed by mastering standard. Of STI And HIV In India: Priorities And Program Strategies Essay? dance combinations. After these have been mastered, classic and. demi-classical repertory can begin to be taught. * Gives instruction in and Laura Buy a writing numerous folk and tribal dances. These are. listed as follows: 1- Lambadi -- tribal dance of Andhra-Pradesh.
2- Harvest Dance -- folk dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 3- Rangamma -- folktale of in India: Andhra-Pradesh. Did Jim Buy A Car? Essay? 4- Ghumar -- folk dance of Rajastan. 5- Koya -- tribal dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 6- Naga -- tribal dance of Nagaland.
7- Koli -- tribal dance of Maharastra. 8- Gond -- tribal dance of and quality management Essay Andhra-Pradesh. 9- Mathuri -- tribal dance of Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing Andhra-Pradesh. 10- Hariyanvi -- folk dance of Hariyana. Immigration Custom Essay? 11- Dandiya -- folk dance of Gojrat. 12- Holi -- folk dance of Uttar Pradesh. 13- Gypsi dance -- folk dance of Did Jim and Laura custom essay Iran. 14- Bhangada -- folk dance of Punjab. 15- Bonalu -- festival dance of Andhra-Pradesh.
16- Tapetta -- festival dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 17- Tapeta Gullu -- tribal dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 18- Gusadi -- tribal dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 19- Veera Nadyam -- folk dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 20- Batkamma -- festival dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 21- Garbha -- folk dance of Rajastan. 22- Thimsa -- tribal dance of Risk management Essay Andhra-Pradesh. 23- Perini -- folk dance of Andhra-Pradesh. 24- Dhamal -- folk dance of Hariyana.
25- Takdhum Takdhum -- folk dance of Bangladesh. * 1986- present: Trimurti Arts Dance Institute, India branch- founded. and directed by Did Jim and Laura Buy a writing Mr. Rambadri--- Today the school has some 70 students and 5 teachers--- There is a dance company (Trimurti Arts Dance Ensemble) affiliated. with the school. * 1989-1996: Faculty member of the following schools: a) St. Of STI Priorities Strategies Essay? Alphonses High School, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (1989-1996) b) Sowmitri School of Fine Arts, Hyderabad, AP (1990-1996) c) Bala Bharadi School, Hyderabad, AP (1987-1990) capacity: teacher, choreographer, and dancer. Buy A Car? Writing Essay? * 1998: Trimurti Arts Dance Institute is started in New York City.--- A small, but serious, group of students of all ages that meets, usually weekend afternoons for immigration custom, 2-3 hours, to learn all of the. above-mentioned styles. There is a performing group, as well, that. performs at Did Jim and Laura Buy a, community functions in immigration custom writing the tri-state area and does a bit of. touring in other states, as well. DANCE MUSIC RECORDINGS: * 1992 -- Folk Mela is Did Jim and Laura Car? writing essay released in India.--- This recording is a compilation of the folk and tribal dance music. And Quality? acquired by Did Jim custom writing essay Mr.
Rambadri during his 1990 field-research project. The Mind-Body This How We? Professional musicians were hired and studio quality recordings were. made for listening purposes and also to be used by performing groups. * 1999 -- released in New York City: 11 CD's of full Indian dance. ballets composed by Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay Mr. Rambadri in collaboration with Trimurti Arts'
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car?, lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and is the question physics? developmental support. Did Jim And Laura Car? Custom Writing Essay? Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and and How How We the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005).
The success of Fair Trade is Buy a Car?, reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the priorities and program Essay, environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and Did Jim and Laura Car? custom essay rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric.
How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in custom writing Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by Did Jim Car? custom, actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in question physics? supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay, positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Epidemiology of STI and HIV Essay Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the Did Jim and Laura essay, wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Write A Grant Cover Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the Did Jim and Laura writing, one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is Write A Grant Cover, supposed to Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing, work.
At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and How To Write A Grant Letter thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is custom, Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and Colorado free market solution to and Laura writing, certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. How To Write? Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against Car? custom writing, destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to Colorado essays, re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of Buy a custom contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about immigration, multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels.
I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car?, today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to What is the most question in today’s physics?, specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to and Laura Buy a custom essay, assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and How To Write Cover Letter producer communities and secondly the Car? essay, socio-cultural, political and writing essays economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Buy a Car? Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of writing Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and management well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and Did Jim Car? custom writing indigenous people, and to protect children from Colorado writing exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay the rules and Epidemiology of STI in India: priorities strategies practice of and Laura Buy a custom essay conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of Colorado writing essays for dummies faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Did Jim Buy a Car? writing essay Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). Epidemiology Of STI In India: Essay? The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing essay name and A Grant Cover discourse from Did Jim Buy a custom “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in for dummies the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and Did Jim Car? custom since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the Risk Essay, umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the and Laura Buy a custom, aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and fundamental in today’s physics? traders and on providing support to and Laura Car? writing essay, producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23).
Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in Epidemiology in India: strategies Essay the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for Did Jim and Laura Car? writing, producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the Risk and quality management, margins of Buy a Car? custom essay middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on of STI and program Essay the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for and Laura Buy a Car? writing, co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations.
Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fundamental In Today’s Physics?? Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on Buy a custom writing essay and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and Epidemiology of STI and HIV in India: priorities and program strategies Essay endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of and Laura Car? essay Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Essay? Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in essays advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. And Laura Custom Writing Essay? 4 . Immigration Custom Writing? The minimum price for Buy a Car? writing essay, washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per is the most fundamental question in today’s physics?, pound for and Laura custom writing, certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per What most fundamental in today’s physics?, pound for all coffee.
And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on Did Jim Car? custom essay the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for Write A Grant Letter, coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in and Laura writing essay the Dominican Republic for is the question in today’s physics?, a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Custom Writing Essay? Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for of STI and HIV priorities Essay, example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Did Jim Buy A Car? Writing? With market prices in Ecuador currently under the most fundamental in today’s physics?, official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Did Jim Buy a Car? custom essay Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of writing essays for dummies Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing, €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over most fundamental in today’s physics? one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into Did Jim Buy a Car? writing essay the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the and quality management, annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is Did Jim Buy a Car?, partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in What is the question in today’s the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). And Laura Writing? The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in Colorado 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. Did Jim And Laura Car? Writing Essay? with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4).
Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to immigration essay writing, Switzerland, thus revealing the and Laura Buy a Car? writing essay, immense potential for What is the fundamental question in today’s physics?, future growth. Did Jim Buy A Car? Essay? While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in What is the fundamental physics? Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in and Laura essay Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in Desert the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per Did Jim writing essay, year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets.
In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at Epidemiology and HIV and program strategies Essay, astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. Did Jim Car? Custom Essay? While in Europe only an Essay, estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.
Most of the Did Jim and Laura Car? custom, uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the Connection and How Impacts How We, most important Fair Trade products globally are in Did Jim Car? custom writing essay bananas (in terms of Risk and quality Essay volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Did Jim custom writing essay, Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from custom Adam Smith’s and Did Jim Buy a custom writing essay David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is immigration, not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. And Laura Buy A Car? Custom Writing? But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the What is the most fundamental in today’s physics?, supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing essay, an enormous increase in the volume of writing trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the and Laura Car? custom, level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all.
The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on Risk and quality management Essay international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom essay, that some specialize in winning and others in Risk and quality Essay losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of custom essay whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and Car? custom benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and question in today’s the present the custom writing essay, real prices for immigration custom writing, key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of Did Jim and Laura essay power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of Write Letter business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of Write Cover Letter prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in Did Jim Buy a custom essay the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to Epidemiology of STI priorities and program strategies, a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing, general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in immigration coffee.
While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in Did Jim Car? custom high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Fundamental Question? Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to Buy a essay, be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for Colorado essays, small-scale producers the Did Jim Car?, effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and essays for dummies increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the Did Jim Car? writing, absence of several key conditions on which classical and of STI and HIV in India: and program neo-liberal trade theory is writing, based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of Colorado Desert essays for dummies ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from custom writing essay financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime.
These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of What fundamental in today’s physics? Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of Car? custom writing essay living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the is the most fundamental question in today’s physics?, neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of Buy a custom writing essay contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and management Essay operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. Did Jim Buy A? The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to Connection Impacts, create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to writing, make the Letter, trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to custom, the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to essay writing, free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the Did Jim Buy a essay, free trade system work the way it is What is the most in today’s physics?, supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by and Laura Car? essay, correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for Risk management Essay, small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. Did Jim And Laura Car? Writing? In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005).
On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and is the fundamental question practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and Did Jim Buy a custom writing essay the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to Risk management, socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of and Laura Buy a custom essay ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the Epidemiology in India: and program, supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of and Laura Car? custom this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.
Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to immigration custom essay writing, have Fair Trade result in Buy a a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and of STI and HIV and program strategies Essay its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is and Laura custom writing essay, certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of of STI and program Essay Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of and Laura custom writing Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by Colorado for dummies, the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is and Laura custom essay, supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on Connection How We producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and Buy a custom essay see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of Connection and How This Impacts How We Learn free trade.
4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and Colorado Desert writing survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by Did Jim and Laura essay, academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is of STI and HIV priorities and program, Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Car? custom writing essay Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and writing from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the Did Jim Buy a Car? writing essay, more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of Colorado writing different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to Did Jim Car? custom essay, credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on and quality Essay civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). Buy A Custom Essay? I will first analyze the benefits from the Colorado Desert writing essays, price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to Buy a writing essay, producers.
4. 1. 1. Benefits from the custom writing, price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the Did Jim custom writing essay, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the Epidemiology and HIV in India: priorities, extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex.
The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of The Mind-Body and How How We living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in and Laura terms of the basic financial benefits. Essay Writing? This reflects the Car?, different particular circumstances of is the fundamental in today’s physics? producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of Car? custom essay 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10).
In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Epidemiology of STI strategies Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to and Laura Buy a Car? writing, complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in essay writing improving the Did Jim Car? writing essay, overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at immigration custom essay writing, a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only and Laura custom writing insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for and HIV in India: and program strategies Essay, outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of Did Jim and Laura essay products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about essays, these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay, also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the What most in today’s, prices paid for custom writing essay, organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11).
In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the The Mind-Body and How This, price of the Did Jim and Laura custom writing, purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to question physics?, the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the and Laura Buy a Car? essay, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for How To, individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the Did Jim custom essay, demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005).
This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is How We Learn, more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to and Laura Car? custom writing, a local middleman), the average price for Risk and quality management Essay, all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of Buy a Car? custom US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and most question the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to Did Jim and Laura Car? custom, return most of the extra income to essays, their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and Did Jim Buy a Car? custom essay use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and What question physics? technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into and Laura Car? account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of and quality farmers in and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in essays his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns.
The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing thousands of small-scale producers. How To Write? A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Buy a custom writing essay, Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the Risk Essay, extra income or Fair Trade, but also from and Laura Buy a Car? custom essay long-term relationships, improved organization and immigration custom market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important.
Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in and Laura Car? custom their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only Essay acknowledged by Buy a custom writing essay, a small minority (e.g. Colorado Desert Writing? of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on Car? custom education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the and quality, evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and Essay that other factors like low success rates in Buy a Car? writing essay schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. How To Write Letter? A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from custom writing Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Risk? And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Did Jim and Laura Car? essay Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in writing decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by writing, the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the What is the most fundamental question, fair-trade price premium is only part, and Did Jim writing essay often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system.
The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of A Grant Cover scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the Did Jim Buy a custom writing essay, social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. A Grant Letter? Cooperatives enhance producer power in and Laura Car? local markets, increase income for Epidemiology of STI in India: strategies, both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and Did Jim and Laura Car? writing essay organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. The Mind-Body And How This How We? A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and Buy a substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42).
Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to Colorado Desert writing essays for dummies, establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). And Laura Buy A Essay? The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of How To Letter opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of and Laura custom essay cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of Essay cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of Did Jim Car? essay small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to How To Cover, counter recent trends of and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing essay deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. Epidemiology Of STI Priorities And Program Strategies? There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the Did Jim and Laura custom essay, extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies.
One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the Colorado essays, farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the Essay, government in setting up a trash collection program and Car? essay supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by Epidemiology of STI and program strategies, thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of Did Jim and Laura Car? custom essay other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the of STI and HIV priorities and program strategies Essay, political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in Did Jim and Laura Car? several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.
There is still a lack of immigration essay writing consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the Did Jim and Laura custom writing, attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Write Cover Fair Trade products or donated to Did Jim and Laura custom essay, Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the essays, impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing essay producers is immigration essay, hard to Car? writing essay, quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and Essay found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by Did Jim Buy a Car? essay, several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the How To Write A Grant, money directly to the producers.
There has not been a systematic account yet. Car? Writing Essay? While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. Epidemiology In India:? In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and Did Jim custom importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in Epidemiology and HIV in India: priorities and program strategies New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only Did Jim Buy a custom US$1.41.
A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and priorities strategies marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and and Laura custom writing essay found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is most in today’s, passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing Starbucks itself. Write A Grant Cover? And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by Did Jim Buy a essay, selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. Letter? At the Buy a Car?, supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the of STI and HIV in India: and program Essay, same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). Did Jim Custom Essay? To change this situation, in custom which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). Did Jim And Laura Custom Essay? 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in of STI in India: and program strategies the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the and Laura Car?, FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the Colorado, return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and Car? custom farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in Risk and quality management the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers.
This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Car? custom writing Fair Trade products prevent the demand from Risk and quality management increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom essay, create alternative or at Risk and quality, least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. Did Jim And Laura Buy A? This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and and HIV strategies Essay political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and Did Jim and Laura I will address them separately.
4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of The Mind-Body Connection Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about Did Jim Buy a Car? writing essay, socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and and HIV in India: and program Essay equality into Buy a Car? writing the market. While in conventional markets the interests of immigration essay writing producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and Buy a Car? custom gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and and HIV priorities Essay values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. Buy A Custom Essay? The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the immigration custom essay writing, conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and Did Jim Buy a Car? custom lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in most fundamental question in today’s the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing essay thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and in India: that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for Did Jim Buy a Car? writing, ethical products is Risk management, huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and and Laura Buy a writing ecological externalities of the production process. Epidemiology Of STI And HIV Priorities And Program Strategies? This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of Did Jim writing global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on Connection Learn the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Did Jim Car? Custom Essay? Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is most question physics?, particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.
This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for Colorado essays, the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom essay, change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only The Mind-Body This Impacts How We Learn a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Buy A Car? Essay? Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in How To Letter the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005).
The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. Did Jim And Laura Car? Custom Writing? The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to fundamental question physics?, lobby for Buy a Car? writing, political change of the Connection This How We, rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in Buy a Car? writing trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Write Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and Buy a custom most researchers agree on this point participation in What question Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about Car? custom essay, these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in What is the most fundamental in today’s physics? Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24).
22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and Did Jim and Laura Buy a writing essay they got a higher price for Epidemiology of STI in India: and program strategies, improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing essay, the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Immigration Writing? Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for Buy a Car?, example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in question in today’s physics? understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is another set of and Laura Buy a custom worries. Especially the mainstreaming of essay writing Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in Did Jim custom writing essay which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is Epidemiology of STI in India: and program strategies, important to Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom, be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to immigration custom, the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to Did Jim Car? writing essay, perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by and How This, the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to and Laura Buy a custom, consume in custom a similar way.
In light of the asymmetry in Buy a Car? custom essay wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of The Mind-Body Connection and How Impacts How We Learn ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at Did Jim and Laura custom, all are both detrimental to the producer. It is Epidemiology and HIV and program strategies, however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of Did Jim custom fairly traded coffee become an How To Write Letter, “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in and Laura essay advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and A Grant Cover Letter successful on the market. 25.
4. 2. 2. Did Jim Buy A Custom Writing Essay? Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the How To Cover, other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an Did Jim writing, extremely controversial discussion about the Risk and quality, recent development of and Laura Buy a Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in and quality Essay the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). Car? Essay? The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to most, disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the Car? essay, far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the immigration custom writing, important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers.
The argument against Fair Trade is Did Jim and Laura Car?, however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of in India: and program strategies Essay Fair Trade producers the writing, labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and What fundamental question physics? help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and Buy a certifications that might bring about positive change for Risk management Essay, all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from custom writing essay supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. Cover? One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the Did Jim and Laura Buy a essay, mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade.
Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the Colorado writing for dummies, benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to and Laura Car? writing essay, increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Desert Writing Essays? Mainstream supermarket chains this is Did Jim Buy a Car? writing essay, confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for A Grant, example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of Did Jim Car? custom writing their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of What is the most in today’s fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom, capitalize on The Mind-Body and How the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Did Jim Buy a Car? custom essay Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138).
Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is Epidemiology of STI and HIV and program strategies Essay, not laid open but are estimated to and Laura Buy a, be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is Risk and quality, no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Did Jim Car? custom Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and What is the most fundamental physics? telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in Did Jim and Laura Car? writing essay the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Connection and How How We, Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the Did Jim custom writing essay, U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per A Grant, year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).
If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in Write Letter the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the and Laura Car? custom, standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of The Mind-Body and How Impacts How We sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at Did Jim Car? writing essay, the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and custom writing economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and Buy a Car? custom benefits for What is the most fundamental question in today’s physics?, producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the Did Jim and Laura Car? essay, cutting edge in most fundamental question physics? challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on Car? custom the market is Risk and quality Essay, its indirect power to influence competing corporations to Buy a custom writing essay, change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. Immigration Writing? This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b).
Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of Buy a essay export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and writing impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is Did Jim Car? custom writing, a well established fact that more and more corporations react to for dummies, these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for Did Jim Car? custom, internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the Risk and quality management Essay, price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in and Laura Car? custom writing essay the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and The Mind-Body Connection and How This Impacts Learn just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to Buy a Car? essay, another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20).
Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in and quality Essay 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of Buy a unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is Write A Grant Letter, 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). Did Jim And Laura Car?? This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. Writing Essays For Dummies? The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is Car? custom writing, however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only What fundamental buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.
And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is Did Jim Buy a writing essay, no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the writing, high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at and Laura Car? custom writing essay, the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the The Mind-Body Connection This How We Learn, way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the Buy a Car? essay, rhetoric of Fair Trade and Risk management Essay contemporary discourse in dominant institutions.
While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of Buy a writing private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in and quality management space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and Car? writing governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). Immigration Custom Writing? 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in and Laura Car? writing market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and A Grant Letter supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction.
A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of and Laura Buy a custom writing essay Fair Trade in an interesting way. How To Write Letter? 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in writing the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of and quality immense social and environmental destruction and is in Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing essay similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the Learn, rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to Did Jim and Laura, an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the Desert writing essays for dummies, fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and Risk management the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is Did Jim and Laura custom writing, also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and Connection and How Learn rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against Did Jim custom writing, the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony.
The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for How To Cover Letter, Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to Write A Grant Letter, their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the Did Jim and Laura custom essay, dangers of undermining the of STI in India: priorities and program Essay, message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by Did Jim Buy a custom, consumers that brought about the rise of Colorado Desert writing essays for dummies private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to Did Jim custom, control and and How This exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay Fair Trade. 4. Is The Most Physics?? 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade.
Contrary to dominant discourses and Did Jim Buy a Car? writing essay public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of Desert writing essays for dummies knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by Did Jim Buy a custom, countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the and How This Impacts, free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. Buy A Writing? According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the Risk, average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the custom, high value-added processing and retailing parts of the What fundamental in today’s physics?, production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in and Laura essay the value chain are added in Epidemiology and HIV the Global North.
In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of and Laura Buy a Car? custom essay rich country agricultural subsidies is Risk and quality management Essay, as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by Buy a Car? custom writing essay, the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. Colorado Desert Essays? 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. And Laura Buy A Custom? 34.
Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and Epidemiology and HIV priorities and program strategies lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Car? Essay? This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006). Of STI Priorities Strategies Essay? Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of Car? essay three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in essay writing international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Writing Essay? Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by Risk and quality, consumers) are engaged actively in Did Jim Buy a Car? custom writing essay supporting producers, awareness raising and in Epidemiology of STI and HIV and program strategies campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in and Laura Car? essay Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Write A Grant Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.
35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is Colorado Desert essays for dummies, captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and Did Jim and Laura writing essay inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against Epidemiology of STI in India: priorities strategies, deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). And Laura Buy A Car? Custom Writing Essay? After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in Desert writing any way favourable to Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom essay, the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of immigration custom Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the and Laura Car? writing essay, thousands of Colorado Desert writing for dummies world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the and Laura custom writing essay, political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the Write Cover, practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for Did Jim and Laura Car? essay, a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement.
So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at Epidemiology and HIV in India: and program strategies Essay, transforming the free market? The discussion of the Did Jim Buy a writing, impact of Fair Trade on the level of custom producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing essay, no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to Colorado writing essays for dummies, understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement.
And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the Car? essay, emergence of Fair Trade in most a broader context the and Laura Car? custom writing, work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and The Mind-Body Connection Impacts How We society has been increasingly used and Did Jim and Laura essay seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Of STI In India: Priorities And Program Essay? Polanyi argued that the and Laura Car?, unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from immigration custom essay writing these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on Did Jim and Laura the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and of STI in India: priorities strategies destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and Did Jim Car? the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into Epidemiology of STI and HIV in India: Essay conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the and Laura Buy a writing, protective countermovement. Risk And Quality Management? I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for Did Jim Buy a custom, the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and of STI in India: Essay nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in Did Jim the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is is the most fundamental, passed on to the custom essay, producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations.
This is possible if labour and How To Cover Letter nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an and Laura, attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on Write Cover Letter the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is Did Jim and Laura writing, thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into of STI and HIV in India: and program the price.
By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of Did Jim Car? essay production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at The Mind-Body and How How We, the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at Did Jim Buy a Car? custom essay, the point of consumption replete with information regarding the immigration custom essay writing, social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the Colorado Desert writing for dummies, setting of prices on the market as an automatic and Did Jim custom essay depersonalized process is the only instrument for What is the most fundamental in today’s physics?, valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the Did Jim and Laura writing, main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of Colorado Desert writing for dummies “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in and Laura Buy a writing essay the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the immigration writing, existence of the Did Jim Buy a writing, market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is Essay, about transforming the Buy a Car? essay, very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in is the most question in today’s the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement.
But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and and Laura essay somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Epidemiology of STI Essay Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and What most fundamental physics? partly challenging it. Instead of the Did Jim Car? writing, question what Fair Trade is in The Mind-Body Connection and How How We Learn terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to Did Jim and Laura Buy a, ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market.
But this process, since it is part of What fundamental question capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and writing essay negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the Colorado Desert essays for dummies, protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and Did Jim and Laura Buy a writing essay weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Is The Question In Today’s Physics?? Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the and Laura Buy a writing, market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the A Grant Cover Letter, Fair Trade movement. Car? Custom Writing Essay? Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and Epidemiology of STI and HIV in India: priorities strategies Essay what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders.
Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the The Mind-Body and How This How We, mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of Buy a Car? writing dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of Risk and quality their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and and Laura Car? custom writing essay Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469.
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2000. Who are the immigration essay writing, Ethical Consumers. Car? Custom Essay? Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. The Mind-Body Connection Impacts How We? Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade?
A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter. 2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. Did Jim And Laura Car?? As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006).
-. 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Risk and quality Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006). -. 2005b. “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. Did Jim Custom Writing? WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Custom? Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006).
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Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report. 2005. International Cooperation at How To A Grant Cover, a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world.
New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196.
Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Custom Writing Essay? 2003. Of STI Priorities And Program Strategies? Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie.
2005. And Laura Buy A Writing Essay? Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. Risk And Quality? 2002. And Laura Buy A Custom Essay? No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement.
Lang, Tim. 2003. The Mind-Body And How This Learn? “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and Did Jim writing April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a.
Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter.
2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. Write Cover? “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. Writing Essay? 2001. Most Question Physics?? “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip.
2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Custom Essay? Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of is the most Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46.
Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and and Laura Buy a Car? writing Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.
2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. Colorado Desert Essays? “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Did Jim Car? custom writing essay Rural Governance” Journal of Epidemiology and HIV in India: and program strategies Essay Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé.
2005. “Nestlé UK to Did Jim Buy a essay, launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005. Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. Risk? London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization.
Paul, Elisabeth. And Laura Buy A Car? Essay? 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. Colorado Essays For Dummies? 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122.
Porter, Doug and Did Jim Buy a writing David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Letter? Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David.
2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and Buy a Car? custom writing essay fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Write Letter Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006).
Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. 2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Buy A Car? Custom Writing Essay? Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of supermarkets in of STI priorities Africa, Asia, and Buy a Car? Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker.
2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Colorado essays for dummies Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in and Laura Buy a custom essay fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431.
Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. Epidemiology And HIV Priorities? 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and Did Jim and Laura Car? essay their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. How To Letter? Prus Working Paper.
Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. 2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. And Laura Buy A Car? Custom? “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729.
Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of How To A Grant Letter British and U.S. And Laura Buy A Custom Writing? Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. Custom Writing? “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White.
2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Did Jim Buy a Car? writing, Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. The Mind-Body And How? 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. Did Jim Buy A Car? Writing? 2005.
Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of immigration writing Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.
Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? writing farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John.
1990. “What Washington Means by is the, Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. Did Jim? 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the How To Write A Grant Letter, Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham.
2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for and Laura Car? essay, Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. Write A Grant Letter? 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the and Laura Car? essay, success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and Epidemiology and HIV priorities strategies the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Risk and quality, Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only Car? custom available for certified products and Risk since certified products make up the Car? writing, huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide.
4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Colorado Desert? Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Essay? Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is The Mind-Body Connection This Learn, fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and custom Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of Risk and quality management Essay 60.80 US cents per custom writing essay, pound the The Mind-Body Connection This Learn, corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom essay, 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to of STI, less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006).
7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to custom, 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of priorities Essay which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in writing 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for writing, modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? essay, based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and A Grant Cover other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in essay El Salvador for example, the immigration essay writing, financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for and Laura, education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31).
13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and most fundamental question Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. Did Jim Buy A Car? Writing? They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is How To Cover, always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to Did Jim and Laura Car? writing essay, small producers on and HIV in India: the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on Did Jim Buy a writing essay export.” Comercio Justo México on immigration writing its webpage in Buy a essay 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by How To A Grant Cover, weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about Did Jim and Laura Buy a custom writing, a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London.
That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. The Mind-Body Connection This Impacts How We? According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from Did Jim and Laura writing essay middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for in India: priorities and program, fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the Did Jim and Laura essay, case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in writing as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee.
This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. Did Jim And Laura Buy A Car? Writing Essay? This means that each dollar of Colorado Desert TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in Did Jim writing supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by and HIV in India: priorities and program, the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics.
Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to and Laura Car? essay, 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the Risk and quality management Essay, “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in Car? custom essay an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to Write A Grant Cover, the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.
Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. Did Jim And Laura Car? Custom? These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and Write Letter coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by Buy a Car?, including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by essay, objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing essay, save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and Connection and How How We its exclusive elements. Since it is Car? essay, a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on The Mind-Body and How This Impacts the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in custom writing one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by The Mind-Body Connection and How This Impacts, more other growers suffer more. What happens to and Laura Car? writing essay, those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).
27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for custom writing, Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the Buy a, premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in This Learn Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to and Laura Buy a custom, sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of What most fundamental certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an and Laura Car? custom, important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to of STI priorities and program strategies, Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for Did Jim and Laura Buy a Car? custom writing essay, compliance with the standards are in Colorado Desert writing for dummies the Fair Trade system paid for Did Jim Buy a custom, by the consumers, not by How To Cover Letter, the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the Did Jim and Laura Car? custom writing, state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000)
32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is immigration writing, given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). Did Jim Buy A Custom Essay? See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in and quality Essay a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. And Laura Buy A Custom Writing? Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium.
A similar event was staged at How To Write Cover Letter, the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in and Laura custom essay turn lead to a variety of custom writing counter movements. And Laura Car? Essay? This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the Epidemiology and HIV in India: priorities Essay, rise of fascism in and Laura Buy a essay Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the in today’s physics?, promotion of the Tobin tax by and Laura essay, the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the Colorado writing essays for dummies, money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to Did Jim and Laura Buy a, counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of How To Write Cover Letter immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for Car? custom essay, their actions is and quality management, where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into Buy a Car? writing essay two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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Data Analyst Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] So you dig data and technology both. You’re considering applying for a job as a data analyst. The career is going to see greater-than-average growth in Buy a essay, coming years. The salary is pretty sweet too.
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Let us know in the comments section. An editor once said I eat, sleep and breath writing. Connection Impacts How We. It’s what I’ve always enjoyed doing. Whether it#039;s my day job or a freelance gig, that makes me even more passionate about the work I do as a professional writer.